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Introduction of IC
Source: Sanfang Xinli Microelectronics Release time: 2016-10-31
IC, the integrated circuit is a semiconductor manufacturing process, a large number of transistors and resistors, capacitors and other components on a small single-crystal silicon chip, and according to the multilayer wiring or tunnel wiring method to combine components into Complete electronic circuit. It is represented in the circuit by the letter "IC" (also with the letter symbol "N", etc.).
Definition of IC
IC is a collective term for semiconductor component products. Including: 1. Integrated circuit board (abbreviated: IC); 2. Second and triode; 3. Special electronic components.
Classification of IC
(I) Classification by functional structure
Integrated circuits can be divided into analog integrated circuits and digital integrated circuits according to their functions and structures.
Analog integrated circuits are used to generate, amplify, and process various analog signals (referring to signals whose amplitude changes over time. For example, audio signals of semiconductor radios, tape signals of recorders, etc.), while digital integrated circuits are used to generate, amplify, and process Various digital signals (refer to signals with discrete values in time and amplitude. For example, VCD and DVD playback audio signals and video signals).
Basic analog integrated circuits include operational amplifiers, multipliers, integrated voltage regulators, timers, and signal generators. There are many types of digital integrated circuits. Small-scale integrated circuits have various gate circuits, such as NAND gates, NAND gates, OR gates, etc .; medium-scale integrated circuits have data selectors, codecs, flip-flops, counters, registers, and so on. Large-scale or very large-scale integrated circuits include PLDs (programmable logic devices) and ASICs (application-specific integrated circuits).
From the perspective of PLD and ASIC, the differences between components, devices, circuits, and systems are no longer strict. Not only that, the PLD device itself is just a hardware carrier, and different circuit functions can be implemented by loading different programs. Therefore, modern devices are no longer pure hardware, and software devices and corresponding software electronics have been used more and more in modern electronic design, and their status is becoming more and more important.
There are many types of circuit components. With the continuous improvement of electronic technology and technology, a large number of new devices continue to appear, and the same device also has multiple packaging forms. For example, chip components have been everywhere in modern electronic products. For different use environments, the same device also has different industrial standards. There are usually three standards for domestic components, namely: civil standards, industrial standards, and military standards. Different standards have different prices. The price of military standard devices may be ten times or more than that of civilian standards. Industry standards are somewhere in between.
(Two) classification by production process
Integrated circuits can be divided into semiconductor integrated circuits and thin film integrated circuits according to the manufacturing process.
Film integrated circuits are classified into thick film integrated circuits and thin film integrated circuits.
(III) Classification by level of integration
Integrated circuits are divided into small-scale integrated circuits (SSI), medium-scale integrated circuits (MSI), large-scale integrated circuits (LSI), very large-scale integrated circuits (VLSI), and ultra-large-scale integrated circuits (ULSI).
(IV) Different classification according to conductivity type
Integrated circuits can be divided into bipolar integrated circuits and unipolar integrated circuits according to the conductive type.
The manufacturing process of bipolar integrated circuits is complicated and the power consumption is large, which means that integrated circuits include TTL, ECL, HTL, LST-TL, and STTL. The unipolar integrated circuit has a simple manufacturing process and low power consumption, and is easy to be made into a large-scale integrated circuit. The representative integrated circuits include CMOS, NMOS, and PMOS.
(V) Classification by purpose
Integrated circuits can be divided into TV integrated circuits by application. Integrated circuits for audio, integrated circuits for video players, integrated circuits for video recorders, integrated circuits for computers (microcomputers), integrated circuits for electronic pianos, integrated circuits for communications, integrated circuits for cameras, integrated circuits for remote control, integrated circuits for speech, integrated circuits for alarms Circuits and various application specific integrated circuits.
TV integrated circuits include line, field scan integrated circuits, mid-amp integrated circuits, sound integrated circuits, color decoding integrated circuits, AV / TV conversion integrated circuits, switching power supply integrated circuits, remote control integrated circuits, Liyin decoding integrated circuits, graphics Chinese painting processing integrated circuits, microprocessor (CPU) integrated circuits, memory integrated circuits, etc.
Audio integrated circuits include AM / FM high-IF circuits, stereo decoding circuits, audio preamp circuits, audio operational amplifier integrated circuits, audio power amplifier integrated circuits, surround sound processing integrated circuits, level drive integrated circuits, and electronic volume control integration Circuit, time delay reverberation integrated circuit, electronic switch integrated circuit, etc.
Integrated circuits for DVD players include system control integrated circuits, video encoding integrated circuits, MPEG decoding integrated circuits, audio signal processing integrated circuits, sound effects integrated circuits, RF signal processing integrated circuits, digital signal processing integrated circuits, servo integrated circuits, and motor drives. Integrated circuits, etc.
Integrated circuits for video recorders include system control integrated circuits, servo integrated circuits, drive integrated circuits, audio processing integrated circuits, and video processing integrated circuits.
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